There formerly was a Confederate monument behind the courthouse in Rockville, Maryland, dedicated to "the thin grey line". The song's lyrics urged Marylanders to "spurn the Northern scum" and "burst the tyrant's chain" in other words, to secede from the Union. On September 14, 1862, Union forces led by Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan met Gen. Robert E. Lee s divided army at the Battle of South Mountain. [3][32] One of those arrested was militia captain John Merryman, who was held without trial in defiance of a writ of habeas corpus on May 25, sparking the case of Ex parte Merryman, heard just 2 days later on May 27 and 28. Others suffered from harsh living conditions, severely cramped living quarters, outbreaks of disease, and sadistic treatment from guards and commandants. Request one of the following Speakers Bureau topics through ouronline form! SHOP Lucius Eugene Chittenden, U.S. Treasurer during the Lincoln Administration, described the dreadful and horrifying conditions Union soldiers found at Belle Isle: "In a semi-state of nuditylaboring under such diseases as chronic diarrhea, scurvy, frost bites, general debility, caused by starvation, neglect and exposure, many of them had partially lost their reason, forgetting even the date of their capture, and everything connected with their antecedent history. I have been researching But on July 10, Confederate General Jubal Early rode intoRockvillewith 15,000 men headed for Washington D.C. "[77][78] Some didn't recall hearing Booth shout anything in Latin. WebCivil War camps on the "EASTERN SHORE" of MARYLAND. The document, which replaced the Maryland Constitution of 1851, was largely advocated by Unionists who had secured control of the state, and was framed by a Convention which met at Annapolis in April 1864. WebConfederate prisoners of war who secured their release from prison by enlisting in the Union Army, were recruited: Alton, Illinois (rolls 1320); Camp Douglas, Illinois (rolls 5364); Camp Morton, Illinois (rolls 99103); Point Lookout, Maryland (rolls 111129); and Rock Island, Illinois (rolls 131135.) (PowerPoint presentation.). WebThe Battle of Monocacy (also known as Monocacy Junction) was fought on July 9, 1864, about 6 miles (9.7 km) from Frederick, Maryland, as part of the Valley Campaigns of 1864 during the American Civil War. To deflect criticism, Stuart wrote a report glorifying his crossing at Rowsers Ford as a heroic, superhuman effort. "Through Storm and Sunshine": Valorous Vivandires in the Civil War, Point Lookout State Park and Civil War Museum. Two said Booth yelled "I have done it!" This PowerPoint presentation covers both the Civil War history of the camps at Muddy Branch and the history and archaeology of its outpost blockhouse and camp located within Blockhouse Point Conservation Park. Between 1861 and 1865, some 29 Union regiments from 13 states stationed at Muddy Branch guarded the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and the Potomac River crossings in the general area between Seneca and Pennyfield Locks. This PowerPoint presentation covers both the Civil War history of the camps at Muddy Branch and the history and archaeology of its outpost blockhouse and camp located within, Dr. Edward Stonestreet of Rockville served as Montgomery County Examining Surgeon in 1862, performing physical examinations on local Union Army recruits and draftees. Those who voted for Maryland to remain in the Union did not explicitly seek for the emancipation of Maryland's many enslaved people, or indeed those of the Confederacy. [10] Soldiers from Pennsylvania and Massachusetts were transported by rail to Baltimore, where they had to disembark, march through the city, and board another train to continue their journey south to Washington.[11]. For a time it looked as if Maryland was one provocation away from joining the rebels, but Lincoln moved swiftly to defuse the situation, promising that the troops were needed purely to defend Washington, not to attack the South. In a letter explaining his actions, Booth wrote: I have ever held the South was right. The new constitution came into effect on November 1, 1864, making Maryland the first Union slave state to abolish slavery since the beginning of the war. Life in a CCC Camp Limited rations, consisting of cornmeal, beef and/or bacon, resulted in extreme Vitamin-C deficiencies which often times led to deadly cases of scurvy. Webcivil war sword union soldier 15,480 Civil War Camp Premium High Res Photos Browse 15,480 civil war camp stock photos and images available, or search for civil war sword or union soldier to find more great stock photos and pictures. [9], After John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry in 1859, many citizens began forming local militias, determined to prevent a future slave uprising. $40.00 + $5.80 shipping. [35] Two of the publishers selling his book were then arrested. MCHS is supported by the Arts & Humanities Council of Montgomery County, the Maryland Historical Trust, Montgomery County Government and the City of Rockville. August 17 Union troops withdraw from the town to the Maryland shore. Camp Douglas originally served as a training facility for Illinois regiments, but was later converted to a prison camp. Spoiler alert:Washingtondidnt fall. This FREE annual event brings together educators from all over the world for sessions, lectures, and tours from leading experts. Abolition of slavery in Maryland came before the end of the war, with a new third constitution voted approval in 1864 by a small majority of Radical Republican Unionists then controlling the nominally Democratic state. [86], The legacies of the debate over Lincoln's heavy-handed actions that were meant to keep Maryland within the union include measures such as arresting one third of the Maryland General Assembly, which was controversially ruled unconstitutional at the time by Maryland native Justice Roger Taney, and in the lyrics of the former Maryland state song, Maryland, My Maryland, which referred to Lincoln as a "despot," a "vandal," and, a "tyrant.". Learn about the Underground Railroad Movement by seeing short dramatic portraits of those involved (and some opposed), both anonymous and known. Antietam Camp #3 is part of the Department of the Chesapeake, which includes Delaware, the District of Columbia, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia. The right to vote was eventually extended to non-white males in the Maryland Constitution of 1867, which remains in effect today. ", Schearer, Michael. Salisbury University, 1991). Headings - Maryland--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Maps - Maryland Campaign, 1862--Maps - United States--Maryland Notes Confederate General John McCausland bragged to Ulysses Grant that McCausland had come closer to taking the city than any other Confederate general. But what was Earlys aim, and how close did he come to taking the city and ending the war? Despite the controversial number Confederates claiming only a few hundred and the Union claiming upwards of 15,000 mortalities the dreadful conditions Federal prisoners faced is unquestionable. WebDuring the Civil War Era, Point Lookout was first a hospital for wounded Union soldiers and then a Civil War prison camp for captured Confederate soldiers. WebWe meet bi-monthly in Frederick, Maryland and have members who live in Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, & West Virginia. In the early months of the camp's existence, the conditions inside Salisbury were quite good, relatively speaking. Population of the United States in 1860, G.P.O. With the increase in men came overcrowding, decreased sanitation, shortages of food, and thus the proliferation of disease, filth, starvation, and death. The battle was part of Early's raid through the Shenandoah Valley and into Maryland, attempting to divert Union forces away from Gen. Robert E. Lee's army under siege at Petersburg, Virginia. [25] After the occupation of the city, Union troops were garrisoned throughout the state. Robert H. Kellog was 20 years old when he walked through the gates of Andersonville prison. While Union forces were able to gain control of the mountain, they could not stop Lee from regrouping and setting the In addition to Forts McHenry and Carroll, these included: Fort #1/2 (1864) at West Baltimore and Smallwood Streets. Rockvilles divisions over slavery and the war can serve as an illustration of the divisions in Maryland and the United States as a whole. [12] Panicked by the situation, several soldiers fired into the mob, whether "accidentally", "in a desultory manner", or "by the command of the officers" is unclear. They were filthy in the extreme, covered in verminnearly all were extremely emaciated; so much so that they had to be cared for even like infants.". WebThirty pen and ink maps of the Maryland Campaign, 1862 : drawn from descriptive readings and map fragments Names Russell, Robert E. L. Created / Published Baltimore : Robert E. Lee Russell, 1932. Lastly, Stuarts army captured and controlled a large Union wagon train laden with supplies, which became a significant impediment to Stuarts expeditious travel onward to Pennsylvania. By the time the last prisoners were sent home in September of 1865, close to 3,000 men had perished. Sign up for our quarterly email series highlighting the environmental benefits of battlefield preservation. This is a PowerPoint presentation. The Confederacy opened Salisbury Prison, converted from a robustly constructed cotton mill, in 1861. On April 14, 1865 the actor John Wilkes Booth assassinated President Abraham Lincoln at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. After he shot Lincoln, Booth shouted "Sic semper tyrannis" ("Thus always to tyrants"). On the night of June 27, 1863, Confederate General J.E.B. Because Maryland's sympathies were divided, many Marylanders would fight one another during the conflict. But few escaped to tell the tale.[65]. Monocacy was a tactical victory for the Confederate States Army but a strategic defeat, as the one-day delay inflicted on the attacking Confederates cost rebel General Jubal Early his chance to capture the Union capital of Washington, D.C. Across the state, some 50,000 citizens signed up for the military, with most joining the United States Army. Yes No An official form of the United States government. WebCamp Hoffman (1) (1863-1865) - A Union U.S. Civil War prison camp established in 1863 on Point Lookout, Saint Mary's County, Maryland. [47], Captain Bradley T. Johnson refused the offer of the Virginians to join a Virginia Regiment, insisting that Maryland should be represented independently in the Confederate army. WebColonial Wars Pequot War French & Iroquois Wars King Philip's War Pueblo Rebellion King William's War Queen Anne's War Tuscarora War Dummer's War King George's War French & Indian War Pontiac's Rebellion Lord Dunmore's War American Wars Revolutionary War Tripolitan War Tecumseh's War War of 1812 Creek Indian War The First Seminole War Although Union leadership mandated a ceiling of 4,000 prisoners at Elmira, within a month of its opening that numbered had swelled to 12,123 men. The story of Rockvilles Dora Higgins and her experiences during the Civil War. WebSeal of Maryland during the war. Despite some popular support for the cause of the Confederate States of America, Maryland did not secede during the Civil War. Even though antebellum prison buildings provided some protection from the elements, blistering summers and brutal winters weakened the immune systems of the already malnourished and shabbily clothed Rebel prisoners. Camp Washington (4) - A Union U.S. Civil War Camp in Kentucky (1861). WebParole Camp Annapolis, Maryland, 1864. Despite some popular support for the cause of the Confederate States of America, Maryland did not secede during the Civil War. [8] Butler fortified his position and trained his guns upon the city, threatening its destruction. WebOver the nine years (1933 - 1942) the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) operated in Maryland , there was an average of twenty-one CCC Camps in the state and any given time, with 15 of these camps sponsored by the State Board of Forestry and located in State Forests and State Parks. When prisoner exchanges were suspended in 1864, prison camps grew larger and more numerous. Closed in 1865. Gonzlez, Felipe, Guillermo Marshall, and Suresh Naidu. To serve as early warning stations on bluffs overlooking the Potomac, Union troops built a series of blockhouses. Not every experience behind camp walls was the same, however. Commandants purposely cut ration sizes and quality for personal profit, leading to illness, scurvy, and starvation. Donations to the Trust are tax deductible to the full extent allowable under the law. The poet Walt Whitman was driven to comment on the shocking living arrangements at Belle Isle after encountering surviving prisoners, appalled at "the measureless torments of thehelpless young men, with all their humiliations, hunger, cold, filth, despair, hope utterly given out, and the more and more frequent mental imbecility.". Prisoners at Andersonville also made matters worse for themselves by relieving themselves where they gathered their drinking water, resulting in widespread outbreaks of disease, and by forming into gangs for the purpose of beating or murdering weaker men for food, supplies, and booty. In that time, the number of men packing onto the tiny island grew to more than 30,000 men. An honor system was set up where each side would take care of housing its own soldiers who had been designated as being on parole, meaning they would not fight in combat unless they were formally exchanged. The Battle of Monocacy was fought on July 9, just outside Frederick, as part of the Valley Campaigns of 1864. In addition to the high frequency of scurvy, many prisoners endured intense bouts of dysentery which further weakened their frail bodies. Point Lookout, Union POW camp for Confederate soldiers, was established after the Battle of Gettysburg and was open from August 1863 to June 1865. [51], A similar situation existed in relation to Marylanders serving in the United States Colored Troops. Emancipation did not immediately bring citizenship for former slaves. By October of 1864, the number of Union prisoners inside Salisbury swelled to more than 5,000 men, and within a few more months that number skyrocketed to more than 10,000. July 21 Union troops occupy Harpers Ferry. Hatboro, PA: Tradition Press, Whitman H. Ridgway. [23] At this time the legislature seems to have wanted to avoid involvement in a war against its southern neighbors.[24]. Literate and evocative, the letters convey an authentic perspective of a soldier who experienced one of the bloodiest and most transformative wars in American history. [14], Hearing no immediate reply from Washington, on the evening of April 19 Governor Hicks and Mayor Brown ordered the destruction of railroad bridges leading into the city from the North, preventing further incursions by Union soldiers. See chart and explanation, p. 550. Obviously many natives of Maryland were doubtless in 1861 citizens of other States, and could not therefore be reckoned among the soldiers furnished by Maryland to the Confederate armies. As one Massachusetts regiment was transferred between stations on April 19, a mob of Marylanders sympathizing with the South, or objecting to the use of federal troops against the seceding states, attacked the train cars and blocked the route; some began throwing cobblestones and bricks at the troops, assaulting them with "shouts and stones". [69] Such celebrations would prove short lived, as Steuart's brigade was soon to be severely damaged at the Battle of Gettysburg (July 13, 1863), a turning point in the war and a reverse from which the Confederate army would never recover. WebCivil War Black Wilderness Trapper Stereoview Hunting Musket Powder Horn Rare + $10.75 shipping. One notable Maryland front line regiment was the 2nd Maryland Infantry, which saw considerable combat action in the Union IX Corps. [citation needed]. WebThe Civil War Camps at Muddy Branch and the Outpost Camp and Blockhouse at This Civil War presentation will use a life-sized mannequin dressed as a wounded Civil War soldier to discuss and demonstrate some Civil War-era (1860s) battlefield medical procedures and techniques. Washington Camp (5) - A British Colonial Jubal Earlys Attack on WashingtonSpeaker: James H. Johnston. It has been estimated that, of the state's 1860 population of 687,000, about 4,000 Marylanders traveled south to fight for the Confederacy. Merrick's fellow judges took up the case and ordered General Porter to appear before them, but Lincoln's Secretary of State Seward prevented the federal marshal from delivering the court order. It quickly became infamous for its staggering death rate and unfathoomable living conditions due to theCommissary General of Prisoners,Col. William Hoffman. [44], Although Maryland stayed as part of the Union and more Marylanders fought for the Union than for the Confederacy, Marylanders sympathetic to the secession easily crossed the Potomac River into secessionist Virginia in order to join and fight for the Confederacy. In this case U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice, and native Marylander, Roger B. Taney, acting as a federal circuit court judge, ruled that the arrest of Merryman was unconstitutional without Congressional authorization, which Lincoln could not then secure: The President, under the Constitution and laws of the United States, cannot suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus, nor authorize any military officer to do so. [74] The new constitution emancipated the state's slaves (who had not been freed by President Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation), disenfranchised southern sympathizers, and re-apportioned the General Assembly based upon white inhabitants. [62] The battle was the culmination of Robert E. Lee's Maryland Campaign, which aimed to take the war to the North. State's participation as a Union slave state; a border state, Marylanders fought both for the Union and the Confederacy, Constitution of 1864, and the abolition of slavery. Frederick County and Washington County, MD | Sep 14, 1862. Col. Hoffman forced Confederate prisoners to sleep outside in the open while furnishing them with little to no shelter. Archaeological work is continuing on the only blockhouse now located on county park land at Blockhouse Point. The issue of slavery was finally confronted by the constitution which the state adopted in 1864. WebOfficially named Camp Hoffman, the 40-acre prison compound was established north of In Western Maryland, Lees efforts came to head with the bloodiest single-day battle of the Civil War at Antietam. If they should attempt it, the responsibility for the bloodshed will not rest upon me. We Were There, Too: Nurses in the Civil War Reenactor: Candace Ridington. The earthworks were removed by 1869. Early defeated Union forces under Maj. Gen. Lew Wallace.The battle was part of Early's raid through the Anxious about the risk of secessionists capturing Washington, D.C., given that the capital was bordered by Virginia, and preparing for war with the South, the federal government requested armed volunteers to suppress "unlawful combinations" in the South. Maryland had ratified the Thirteenth Amendment on February 3, 1865, within three days of it being submitted to the states. Most prisoners had already been imprisoned in Andersonville. If they were lucky, several men could be crammed into thin canvas tents, but most were forced to construct their own drafty shelters. My father was the neighborhood air raid warden. WebBetween 1861 and 1865, American Civil War prison camps were operated by the Union First, Stuarts army demonstrated their control of Rockville by rounding up Union officials and taking them prisoner. Stuarts men came through Rockville and captured her husband. [45], The 1st Maryland Infantry Regiment was officially formed on June 16, 1861, and, on June 25, two additional companies joined the regiment in Winchester. But the markers, and history, misplace the site. Every purchase supports the mission. The first fatalities of the war happened during the Baltimore Civil War Riots of Thursday/Friday, April 1819, 1861. [84] Easton, Maryland also has a Confederate monument. William Penn was the largest Civil War camp for the training of officers to lead African American troops. It is located along the coast of Maryland only five feet above sea level, on approximately 30 acres of level land. There were simply too many prisoners and not enough food, clothing, medicine, or tents to go around. Join us July 13-16! WebConfederate prisoners of war who secured their release from prison by enlisting in the Union Army, were recruited: Alton, Illinois (rolls 1320); Camp Douglas, Illinois (rolls 5364); Camp Morton, Illinois (rolls 99103); Point Lookout, Maryland (rolls 111129); and Rock Island, Illinois (rolls 131135.) Book sales and signings can be included, with all of the sales proceeds going to Montgomery History. [53] Candace Ridington portrays all of the characters using a mix of props and clothing alterations. The rebellious States are to be brought back to their places in the Union, without change or diminution of their constitutional rights.[73]. Antietam Camp #3 is part of the Department of the Chesapeake, which includes Delaware, the District of Columbia, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia. Author Robert Plumb reads from McClellands letters and narrative excerpts from his book, Between 1861 and 1865, some 29 Union regiments from 13 states stationed at Muddy Branch guarded the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and the Potomac River crossings in the general area between Seneca and Pennyfield Locks. Suitable for adults and young adults. By December of that year, more than 9,000 were imprisoned. [15] One of the men involved in this destruction would be arrested for it in May without recourse to habeas corpus, leading to the ex parte Merryman ruling. Confederate forces under Lt. Gen. Jubal A. I don't want to issue a document the whole world will see must be inoperative, like the Pope's Bull against a comet. His executive officer was the Marylander George H. Steuart, who would later be known as "Maryland Steuart" to distinguish him from his more famous cavalry colleague J.E.B. [76] Other witnesses including Booth himself claimed that he only yelled "Sic semper! In March 1862, the Maryland Assembly passed a series of resolutions, stating that: This war is prosecuted by the Nation with but one object, that, namely, of a restoration of the Union just as it was when the rebellion broke out. The Confederate General A. P. Hill described, the most terrible slaughter that this war has yet witnessed. 18,000 Confederates were incarcerated there by the end of the war. [37] The court objected that this disruption of its process was unconstitutional, but noted that it was powerless to enforce its prerogatives. The constitution was submitted to the people for ratification on October 13, 1864 and it was narrowly approved by a vote of 30,174 to 29,799 (50.31% to 49.69%) in a vote likely overshadowed by the heavy presence of Union troops in the state and the repression of Confederate sympathizers. Union Army Surgeon Dr. Edward Stonestreet & His Civil War Hospital in RockvilleSpeaker: Clarence Hickey. [1] In the leadup to the American Civil War, it became clear that the state was bitterly divided in its sympathies. The American Battlefield Trust and our members have saved more than 56,000 acres in 25 states! However, a number of leading citizens, including physician and slaveholder Richard Sprigg Steuart, placed considerable pressure on Governor Hicks to summon the state Legislature to vote on secession, following Hicks to Annapolis with a number of fellow citizens: to insist on his [Hicks] issuing his proclamation for the Legislature to convene, believing that this body (and not himself and his party) should decide the fate of our stateif the Governor and his party continued to refuse this demand that it would be necessary to depose him. [3] In all nine newspapers were shut down in Maryland by the federal government, and a dozen newspaper owners and editors like Howard were imprisoned without charges.[3]. There was much less appetite for secession than elsewhere in the Southern States (South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Alabama Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas, Tennessee) or in the border states (Kentucky and Missouri),[2] but Maryland was equally unsympathetic towards the potentially abolitionist position of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln. It was actually two miles downriver in a placid, sandy-bottomed part of the Potomac on John Rowzees farm. My troops are on Federal Hill, which I can hold with the aid of my artillery. Jim Johnston uses the statues to tell the story of the Civil War and of the artistry that went into them. Howard described these events in his 1863 book Fourteen Months in American Bastiles, where he noted that he was imprisoned in Fort McHenry, the same fort where the Star Spangled Banner had been waving "o'er the land of the free" in his grandfather's song. In July 1864 the Battle of Monocacy was fought near Frederick, Maryland as part of the Valley Campaigns of 1864. Alton Federal Prison, originally a civilian criminal prison, also exhibited the same sort of horrifying conditions brought on by overcrowding. In the 14 months of its existence, 45,000 prisoners were received at Andersonville prison, and of these nearly 13,000 died. [26], Butler went on to occupy Baltimore and declared martial law, ostensibly to prevent secession, although Maryland had voted solidly (5313) against secession two weeks earlier,[27] but more immediately to allow war to be made on the South without hindrance from the state of Maryland,[25] which had also voted to close its rail lines to Northern troops, so as to avoid involvement in a war against its southern neighbors. Archaeological work is continuing on the only blockhouse now located on county park land at Blockhouse Point. [citation needed] However, the constitution secured ratification once the votes of Union army soldiers from Maryland were included.